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How do I reset my administrative password


PROBLEM:

This is a problem that we might experience while using any operating system. 
So how do we reset the administrative password? 

SOLUTION:

To reset the machine password we need to boot into recovery mode.
To do that we must enter the GRUB menu. If you have a dual-boot or multi-boot ( two or more operating systems on the same computer) you will see the GRUB menu directly.
 I f you don't have any other operating system after the BIOS menu hold down the SHIFT key and you see a menu like this:


Select the second one (the one with recovery mode).
Now you will see this menu:


Select root or netroot using the arrow keys and press ENTER.
Now you should see a root prompt like this:
root@ubuntu:~#



At this stage you should have a read-only filesystem. You have to remount it with write permissions:
Type the following and press ENTER
mount -rw -o remount /
chmod 640 /etc/shadow
Now we can set the password using passwd command.
root@ubuntu:~# passwd USER
Enter new UNIX password:
Retype new UNIX password:
passwd: password updated successfully
root@ubuntu:~#

Substitute USER by your user name.
Type in what you want the new password to be at the prompt. After it's successful reboot the machine and then you will be able to log in with your new password.


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Unable to lock the administration directory (/var/lib/dpkg/) is another process using it?

PROBLEM:
Some times we get the following error while trying yo install software using apt-get or synaptic packaging manager.
E: Could not get lock /var/lib/dpkg/lock - open (11 Resource temporarily unavailable)
E: Unable to lock the administration directory (/var/lib/dpkg/) is another process using it?


How can we resolve this?
SOLUTION: 
The problem occurs if we are running another applications like synaptic using the directory. So, if this is the case close the applications and try run the command again.
You will also get this message if you forget to use  sudo  when executing an apt command. You can use sudo lsof /var/lib/dpkg/lock to find the process that owns the lock file Then try to kill the process to remove the lock.
**WARNING**
This should be used as last resort. If you use this carelessly you can end up with a broken system.
You can delete the lock file with the following command:
sudo rm /var/lib/apt/lists/lock


You may also need to delete the lock file in the cache directory.
sudo r…