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About linux

Windows is a proprietary operating system which is running on many computers in the world. Now-a-days open-source operating systems are also being used widely even by normal (non-geeky) users.
Windows requires a lot of maintenance: You must clean up your drive, defragment it, and update your windows and the most irritating part: updating your anti-virus and running scans for viruses regularly. And let’s not forget clean your registry and defragment it too! Even though a lot of maintenance is required most users still prefer using windows (and most of them are home users who play games and do some work in ‘office’.
Now let’s take a look on Linux:
Linux was originally developed from UNIX. In 1991 Linus Torvalds, a university student from Finland called the users from internet to collaborate for building an ‘open source’ operating system. In 1994, the version ‘1.0’ was released. Linux is now used in many PDA’s, watches, Pc’s, consumer electronics, servers and supercomputers. Linux is technically an OS kernel. Some communities are now developing and releasing Linux in the form of various distributions like Ubuntu, Fedora,Redhat,linux mandrake, Linux mint etc. these distributions come with a variety of utilities, desktop shells, networking suites, file systems.
The upside of Linux is that it is open source. Linux is said to be virus-proof but some Linux viruses exist. But they can’t harm your computer if you keep your Linux patched by updating it. You don’t need to defragment it because it uses more advanced ext4 file system. You can still install an antivirus in your Linux to scan your windows drives so that you can prevent yourself from spreading viruses (they can’t harm your computer but you might spread viruses by sharing infected files!). Linux is customizable to a large extent and now it is developing really fast and finally it’s free!

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How to setup a wifi-hotspot in Ubuntu: The terminal way.

Ubuntu has a "Use as hotspot" mode. But it creates a n ad-hoc network only.Wireless hotspots aren't same as ad hoc networks. Significant difference is there. In short, ad hoc networks aren't supported in most Android, Windows Phone and Blackberry devices (and may be iOS devices too) whereas AP mode Wi-Fi hotspots are.

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sudo ap-hotspot start
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Unable to lock the administration directory (/var/lib/dpkg/) is another process using it?

PROBLEM:
Some times we get the following error while trying yo install software using apt-get or synaptic packaging manager.
E: Could not get lock /var/lib/dpkg/lock - open (11 Resource temporarily unavailable)
E: Unable to lock the administration directory (/var/lib/dpkg/) is another process using it?


How can we resolve this?
SOLUTION: 
The problem occurs if we are running another applications like synaptic using the directory. So, if this is the case close the applications and try run the command again.
You will also get this message if you forget to use  sudo  when executing an apt command. You can use sudo lsof /var/lib/dpkg/lock to find the process that owns the lock file Then try to kill the process to remove the lock.
**WARNING**
This should be used as last resort. If you use this carelessly you can end up with a broken system.
You can delete the lock file with the following command:
sudo rm /var/lib/apt/lists/lock


You may also need to delete the lock file in the cache directory.
sudo r…