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Eye candy for Ubuntu

      INSTALLING GNOME SHELL IN UBUNTU

Ubuntu has introduced unity as the desktop manager. But there are variety of options for desktop managers in Ubuntu. One of them is the gnome-shell. 



Gnome-shell:



GNOME Shell is the "official" shell developed for GNOME 3 by GNOME.
 GNOME  Shell  provides  core  user  interface functions for the GNOME 3
 desktop, like switching to windows and  launching  applications.  GNOME
 Shell  takes  advantage of the capabilities of modern graphics hardware
 and introduces innovative user interface concepts to provide a visually
 attractive and easy to use experience.

Installing gnome-shell:

In 11.10 onwards, GNOME Shell is  installable from the official repositories.You can find it in the Ubuntu Software Center, or
to install from a terminal type
 sudo apt-get install gnome-shell


Now you can try it by pressing ALT+F2  and entering gnome-shell --replace


        INSTALLING XFCE IN UBUNTU

Xfce is a lightweight desktop environment for UNIX-like operating systems. It aims to be fast and low on system resources, while still being visually appealing and user friendly.
Ubuntu has a xfce spin called xubuntu. You can install it from software center or command-line.
sudo apt-get install xubuntu-desktop



xubuntu




Installing LXDE (Lightweight X11 Desktop Environment) in ubuntu

Lubuntu desktop screenshot
LXDE is an extremely light desktop environment that focuses on high performance and low resource usage. It is currently the default desktop environment used by Lubuntu


If you have regular Ubuntu installed, you can install it from the Software Center, just look for lubuntu-desktop in it or install it from command-line:
sudo apt-get install lubuntu-desktop


 Installing KDE in ubuntu

 KDE is probably the second most well-known DE available after GNOME.

 

If you have regular Ubuntu installed, you can also install it from the Software Center, just look for kubuntu-desktop in it.
Kubuntu doesn't have the best reputation among KDE users, being regarded as slow and using more memory than needed (there are posts of people using KDE on Arch Linux taking less than 450MB).

 Installing Cinnamon in ubuntu

 Cinnamon is a Gnome-Shell desktop fork. It is not strictly a Gnome-2 interface, although the developers aims are laudable - to produce a simpler more traditional desktop interface.

From a terminal type the following:
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:gwendal-lebihan-dev/cinnamon-stable
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install cinnamon
 

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How to setup a wifi-hotspot in Ubuntu: The terminal way.

Ubuntu has a "Use as hotspot" mode. But it creates a n ad-hoc network only.Wireless hotspots aren't same as ad hoc networks. Significant difference is there. In short, ad hoc networks aren't supported in most Android, Windows Phone and Blackberry devices (and may be iOS devices too) whereas AP mode Wi-Fi hotspots are.

              It is really simple and easy to setup a hotspot in Ubuntu. We use a tool called ap-hotspot. To install it open a terminal and type the following:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:nilarimogard/webupd8 sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install ap-hotspot
             Next, to start the hotspot type the following in a terminal:
sudo ap-hotspot start
It asks you which adapter's internet you want to share, name of the network, password, etc. in an interactive manner. To stop the hotspot type the following n the terminal :
sudo ap-hotspot stop
To configure it type the following in the terminal :
sudo ap-hotspot configure

Unable to lock the administration directory (/var/lib/dpkg/) is another process using it?

PROBLEM:
Some times we get the following error while trying yo install software using apt-get or synaptic packaging manager.
E: Could not get lock /var/lib/dpkg/lock - open (11 Resource temporarily unavailable)
E: Unable to lock the administration directory (/var/lib/dpkg/) is another process using it?


How can we resolve this?
SOLUTION: 
The problem occurs if we are running another applications like synaptic using the directory. So, if this is the case close the applications and try run the command again.
You will also get this message if you forget to use  sudo  when executing an apt command. You can use sudo lsof /var/lib/dpkg/lock to find the process that owns the lock file Then try to kill the process to remove the lock.
**WARNING**
This should be used as last resort. If you use this carelessly you can end up with a broken system.
You can delete the lock file with the following command:
sudo rm /var/lib/apt/lists/lock


You may also need to delete the lock file in the cache directory.
sudo r…