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Advancing with the terminal

Advancing with the terminal
In the previous post we discussed about the basics of the terminal. In this post I will tell you about advanced commands that can be used in the terminal.
System Information Commands:
These commands are used to know information about the system. 
  •     df:      The df command displays file system usage for all the mounted partitions.
df –h produces a more readable output in Megabytes (M) and Gigabytes (G). [-h means human-readable].
  • ¨    du :  The ducommand displays the disk usage for a directory. For more readable output you can use du –sh.
  • ¨    free : The  freecommand displays the free and used memory in the system.
Free –m will give the output in Megabytes which is more readable.
  • ¨    top : The topcommand  displays information on your Linux system, running processes and system resources, including CPU, RAM & swap usage and total number of tasks being run. To quit it you can press “q”.
  • ¨    uname –a : The unamecommand prints all system information, including machine name, kernel name and version, and a few other details.
  • ¨    lsb_release –a : The lsb_release command prints version information for the Linux release you're running.


If you tried copying commands and pasting in terminal using ctrl+c and ctrl+vyou might have noticed that pasting won’t work using ctrl+v. To paste into a terminal you can use ctrl+shift+v.
You can also do Middle Button Click on your mouse (both buttons simultaneously on a two-button mouse).
You can also right-click and select paste from the menu.

Up Arrow or CTRL+P
Scrolls through the commands that you've entered previously.
Down Arrow or ctrl+n
Takes you back to a more recent command.
When you have the command you want.
It autocompletes any commands or filenames, if there's only one option, or else gives you a list of options.
Searches for commands you've already typed. When you have entered a very long, complex command and need to repeat it, using this key combination and then typing a portion of the command will search through your command history. When you find it, simply press Enter.
The history command shows a very long list of commands that you have typed previously. Each command is displayed next to a number. You can type !x to execute a previously typed command from the list (replace the X with a number). If you history output is too long, then you can use history | less for a scrollable list.

ctrl+a or Home
Moves the cursor to the start of a line.
ctrl+e or End
Moves the cursor to the end of a line.
Moves to the beginning of the previous or current word.
Deletes from the current cursor position to the end of the line.
Deletes from the start of the line to the current cursor position.
Deletes the word before the cursor.
Goes back one word at a time.
Moves forward one word at a time.
Capitalizes letter where cursor is and moves to end of word.

Incremental history searching

This is a very useful feature. Many agree that this is the most useful terminal tool saves you a lot of typing/memorizing. This tool is like the autocomplete feature for the terminal but this is for only previously entered commands.
To use this tool follow these instructions.
Open a terminal and type:
gedit  ~/.inputrc

Then copy and paste the following:
"\e[A": history-search-backward
"\e[B": history-search-forward
"\e[C": forward-char
"\e[D": backward-char

And save. While entering a command just type the first two or three letters and press up arrow and it will complete the command for you!

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